LUDA e-newsletter is a
free electronic document, edited by the LUDA research team from the
Institute of Ecological and Regional Development in Dresden (Germany).
e-newsletter is distributed every three months, providing project
on current affairs and details of other interesting issues.
this issue of the
newsletter we would like to present an important outcome of the project
position paper: "Sustainable Cities at the centre of the
economy and cohesive European society". This paper is a contribution to
the ongoing discussion on the thematic domain for the 7th Framework
of the European Community for Research and has been discussed and
agreed by the
participants of the last LUDA conference in Salzburg.
This issue comprehends the city stories written by the colleagues from Edinburgh and Dresden. Both
are advanced in their rehabilitation process and present their
far. The story of Edinburgh - Craigmillar illustrates how with the use
Urban Design Framework the challenges, conflicting issues and
priorities can be
tackled. The Dresden story focuses on the projects leading in small
the improvement of the quality of life in the Weißeritz area.
We wish you a nice lecture!
The IOER LUDA Team
"Sharing Experiences - Developing Strategies for Large Urban Distressed
Areas" in Salzburg 2nd -3rd December 2004
two days of conference
were devoted to "Sharing experience" between the cities within the LUDA
Project. During the panel presentations and discussions in the working
specific experience in urban rehabilitation, especially to the
quality and urban structure aspects, in community capacity/governance
and image aspects and in human/social development and economic development
aspects were compared and exchanged.
In a common work a position paper was produced as a result of intensive
exchange during these two days of conference and one workshop day. It has been
signed by the participants as a policy paper addressed to the European Commission
and called "Sustainable Cities at the core of knowledge-based economy and
cohesive European society". The whole text of the paper is published in
this newsletter >See Position Paper<.
The Craigmillar Urban Design Framework is online
The Craigmillar Urban Design Framwork
states a plan for the development of the Craigmillar area and decribes
the standards that new development must meet. It can now be obtained
via the following web link:
Strength in diversity
On 29th and 30th November 2004, an
informal EU ministerial meeting for territorial cohesion and urban
policy took place in "De Doelen" in Rotterdam. Minister of Housing,
Spatial Planning and the Environment, Sybilla Dekker, and Deputy Prime
Minister and Minister for Government Reform and Kingdom Relations,
Thomas De Graaf, were hosting this ministerial meeting.
Reform of the
Danuta Hübner, the new Commissioner responsible for Regional
Policy stated that in policy terms, we cannot ignore territorial
disparities in the larger EU. With the enlargement of the EU there are
now 13 Cohesion countries instead of 4. These are the Member States
whose gross national income is below 90% of the EU average. This is
connected to the new economic processes increasing a demand for
structural and cohesion funds. The enlargement is also an opportunity
to increase the competitiveness and dynamism of the EU economy.
It has become commonplace to note the slow progress towards the Lisbon
objective of making the EU more dynamic and competitive and raising
employment rates and growth potential. Progress has been slow mainly
because national governments have found it very difficult to undertake
reforms and to make the necessary investments as well as there was to
small ownership of the Lisbon process outside Brussels meetings.
The reforms of the cohesion policy for the period 2007-2013 are
responding the challenges of the enlargement and the Lisbon agenda
through the greater support of the poorest regions and countries which
have the highest potential for real convergence. New Member States will
receive up to 4% of GDP in EU funds. Cohesion policy will continue also
outside the poorest regions. The reform will substantially simplify the
administration of the EU funding.
The discussion paper for the meeting included a stated need for a new
phase in EU cooperation on the territorial aspects of EU policies. The
new phase will be aimed at deepening the territorial dimension,
building on the objective of territorial cohesion and integrating it
into EU policies with the aim of supporting the Union's ambitions of
sustainable economic growth. The huge territorial and cultural
diversity of the enlarged Union should in this respect be seen not as a
problem but as an asset that will have to be better exploited as a
unique potential for the Union.
The territorial challenges require a coherent approach to the
development of the EU territory that takes account of its diversity.
With regard to a coherent approach to the development of the EU
territory the Ministers stated that the regions and the Member States
have to identify their unique development potential and their position
in the European territory, and to place spatial development strategies
in a transnational and European development context. Integrated spatial
development approaches enable regions and cities to exploit their
potentials more effectively and support the Lisbon Strategy aims. The
EU policies with a territorial impact have to be more coherent and take
account of Europe's great territorial and cultural diversity as an EU
potential. The future cohesion policy should consider the sectoral and
spatial components ensuring an integrated approach and coherence
between national policy priorities and those for transnational and
With regards to the urban policy the ministers agreed that they are
going to make a concerted effort to put urban policy higher on the
European agenda. More attention must be given to the role of the cities
as a driving force behind economic development and a better social
climate. The EU countries shall also collaborate more in this area. A
European exchange network will be created with an aim to achieve
effective cooperation between urban, national and European networks.
Patrycja Bielawska-Roepke (IOER)
"The Efficiency of Knowledge
Based Society on Spatial Development"
International Competition 2005
Die Akademie für Raumplanung und Landesentwicklung
SPECTRA, Centre of Excellence, Bratislava
The topic "knowledge based society" can be understandable as an overall
issue that combines numerous ways and dimensions in spatial
development. With regard to the main topic science and the relationship
to the spatial research and the spatial development, following aspects
are important to take into the consideration:
1. Time-spatial dimensions of the knowledge based society
- time-spatial relevant hallmark of
the knowledge based society
- further development of spatial
understanding in the knowledge based society
- harmonised play of dynamic and
stability in knowledge and space
2. Regional innovation systems in the
knowledge based society
- innovation and diffusion research
in context of the knowledge based society
- comparable analysis of regional
- arise of innovations under
diverse spatial contextual conditions
- reconnoitring of intraregional
complementary relationships between innovation and development
- de-central, counter-urban
knowledge and enterprising nets
- What kinds of role are playing
the knowledge intensive service providers for regional innovation
processes outside of the metropolitan regions?
3. Underlining the scientific dimension in spatial
planning and regional development
- Time-spatial paths of
knowledge-spillovers: How the regions can get "fit" for the innovation
- to bring to agree on spatial
planning and spatial development policy to support the regional
innovation and regional economy process
- knowledge management for space -
space for knowledge management
- Benchmarking of regional
innovation systems - How the regional economical dynamic could be
measured and evaluated?
- Supporting programs for research,
innovation and knowledge based intensive economy - aims and results in
In competition it is expected to
consider or to implement the situations described above. Welcome are
discussions of stated proposals, conclusions that should be done in the
field of spatial and environmental policies and planning. This combines
diverse aspects of technological, economical, social, cultural and
spatial development with their challenge and collaboration. One special
challenge of this competition is to join young collaborating
researchers to achieve honoured creative field, full of
non-conventional thinking. These ideas, impulses, designs should
compete to "old good manors". The outcome should be seen in influence
of the knowledge based society and spatial development in diverse
science fields and research ways and to manage future research
Themes can be elaborated from different
points of view and different fields (e.g. spatial and regional
sciences; city-, region- and landscape planning; geography; legal-,
economy-, politics-, traffic- and social aspects). Diverse points of
view and overlapping of different fields are recommended. Possible are
different levels of observations from local to European level. Welcome
are contributions as more theoretical, as from more analytical point of
view, as methodical further development, as well as praxis oriented
reports with science background. Welcome are own ideas, opinions and
It is possible to hand-in not only
papers written for this competition, acceptable are papers that are
summaries of already existing studies, research papers and
dissertation, unless they respect the prescribed form and are
understandable without the original text.
The prizes are altogether donated with
3400 EUR. It is foreseen to award the first prize (500 EUR), the second
prize (300 EUR) and the third prize (100 EUR). Prizes will be awarded
during the summer school in September 2005. The author of the first
prize contribution will have the opportunity to present it in the ARL
and in the SPECTRA journal. Our intension is to publish all awarded
Participants can be students, graduates,
collaborators in fields of spatial and environmental studies, research
and praxis. Age limit: 35 years (referred to the 15th of April 2005).
Work from teams up to three authors is acceptable. Contributions should
not be longer as 20 pages DIN A4 (standardised page: 33 lines per page,
80 signs per line), written in English/German and should not be already
published or offered for publishing.
The end date for hand-in of papers is
the 30th of April 2005 in the electronically form on the CD or should
be send as an e-mail with attached filled form to ARL or SPECTRA,
Centre of Excellence. The prizes will be awarded by independent jury.
Contributions are collected at the address written below:
Assoc. Prof. Dagmar Petríková
SPECTRA, Centre of Excellence
Faculty of Architecture STU
Nám. Slobody 19
812 45 Bratislava
or send an e-mail:
The 3rd Conference of the European
Consortium for Political Research (ECPR) will take place in Budapest,
Hungary from 8-11September 2005. Section 28 will focus the subject
"Europeanisation and New Forms of Governance: Challenges and
Perspectives for Civil Society Organisations in the Enlarged Europe".
The section is organised by Prof Máté Szabó
(University of Budapest) and Prof Annette Zimmer (University of
Muenster). It will include eight panels. The deadline is March, 1st.
For further information concerning Budapest conference, please visit
The Network of Urban Forums for
Sustainable Development (NUFSD) is a network of urban partners
comprising Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs), Non-profit
Organisations (NPOs), research institutions and local authorities
within the European Union and accession countries.
The mission is to contribute to more sustainable urban development in
Europe, which is based on effective communication between the European
Union and all stakeholders, especially citizens, in our cities.
The network is supported by the European Commission/DG Environment.
Sustainable Cities at
the centre of the knowledge-based economy and cohesive European society
Thematic domains for future European Research within the 7th Framework
Programme of the European Community for Research
Cities are the main drivers of economic
growth, in addition to social and cultural diversity, across Europe.
Given the problems and potential of the Lisbon Strategy, and other
urban policies and strategies of the European Community, a range of
research initiatives in the 7th Framework Programme are necessary in
order to focus on the nature of the knowledge society and cities.
The European Union - as stated in the Lisbon Strategy, March 2000 -
aims at becoming "the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based
economy in the world, capable of sustainable economic growth with more
and better jobs and greater social cohesion."
The Nice European Council (2000)
focused on a coordinated EU strategy for social inclusion, and the
Gothenburg European Council (2001) proposed a strategy for sustainable
development, stressing the need to incorporate an environmental
dimension into this strategy. Therefore, the European Union Strategy
for Sustainable Development "A Sustainable Europe for a Better World"
(2001) highlights that "...in the long term, economic growth, social
cohesion and environmental protection must go hand in hand."
The Sixth Community Environment Action
Programme (2002), the forthcoming Thematic Strategy on the Urban
Environment (2004) and Aalborg+10 - Inspiring Futures (2004) (providing
a valuable framework for sustainable urban development) all emphasise
the central and strategic roles of urban research, urban planning and
urban policies in order to achieve a sustainable society with a
competitive economy; a social cohesive society and a clean, healthy and
safe environment. To achieve these aims, cross-cutting and integrated
approaches are required, best provided by spatial policies on the urban
and regional levels.
The current proposal for regulation of
the European Parliament and of the European Regional Development Fund's
Council suggests that "the ERDF shall support the development of
participative, integrated strategies to tackle the high concentration
of economic, environmental and social problems affecting urban
agglomerations." The "Council Regulation: Laying Down General
Provisions On The European Regional Development Fund, The European
Social Fund And The Cohesion Fund" document proposes the reinforcement
of urban issues (including urban regeneration), building on the
strength of the URBAN initiative, which shall be expanded in the future.
Multidisciplinary by nature, urban and
regional issues encompass a wide variety of European policy objectives
in relation to the areas of health, energy, the environment,
information and communication technologies, transport, education and
training, employment, social affairs and economic cohesion. Therefore,
further investigation into these areas will provide a major
contribution to the vision of a sustainable Europe.
Within Europe, 80% of the population
live in urban areas. These areas play a strategic role in efforts to
achieve a dynamic, knowledge-based economy, socially cohesive society
and good quality environment. However, environmental issues are at the
fore in current discussions, as described in the forthcoming thematic
strategy on the urban environment.
Additionally, European cities often
experience the emergence of larger urban areas, with low living
standards leading to social segregation; causing them to be excluded
from knowledge-based society. These areas suffer multiple deprivation
such as degraded housing, inadequate or inappropriate facilities (e.g.
in terms of infrastructure and transport), rundown or derelict
industrial sites, and environmental risks and problems. Additionally,
unattractive and disconnected urban structures, unemployment and
weaknesses in social cohesion (e.g. poverty, low educational standards,
ageing, poor health standards) are detrimental to the sustainable
development of the city as a whole.
Any moves to improve the quality of
life in these deprived areas have to address problems relating to
highly unpredictable development trends and require long-term,
multi-layered development, based upon flexible, integrated strategies.
These must also be supported by the active participation of all
stakeholders, including municipalities, developers, the general public
and those involved in inter-governmental and cross-jurisdictional
co-operation. Strategic, integrative and collaborative approaches are
necessary to reconcile economic, ecological and social development and
to achieve commitment from public, in addition to private, stakeholders.
Sustainable urban and regional
development will provide major contributions towards improving
citizens' quality of life, particularly within areas subject to
Sustainable urban development
requires far-sighted strategic planning and development.
Sustainable urban development aims
to maximise developmental opportunities by focusing on an integrated
approach, incorporating environmental, economic, social and cultural
factors into decision making.
As sustainable urban development
cannot be solved by public authorities alone, a good urban and regional
governance approach is crucial for capacity building and increasing
stakeholders' commitment. Stronger emphasis should be placed on
co-operative networking, the exchange of experiences, public
participation and stakeholder involvement (citizens, businesses, the
voluntary sector, the media etc.), and mediation and arbitration. It is
necessary for sustainable urban development to recognise and further
the learning community strategy which European cities are adopting and
to meet the knowledge transfer and capacity building requirements of
stakeholders, in the development of sustainable communities. Creating
favourable conditions for private sector developments is also important.
Sustainable urban development
requires the achievement of economic benefits without having a negative
impact upon social cohesion or the environment. Sustainable urban
land-use planning plays a strategic role in achieving this aim by
promoting environmentally sustainable transport through the protection
of soil, water, and air quality, biodiversity and by reducing the
volume of waste.
Sustainable urban development
implies measures to combat social exclusion and poverty in addition to
finding solutions in terms of the challenges of demographic
development, such as the ageing population.
II Proposals for Future Urban
Taking into account European Policies, future research is necessary in
the following areas:
Function of cities from a user
perspective - integrating the emerging spatial, temporal and virtual
structures of the knowledge-based society, in the context of complex
historically-determined urban structures, both physical and social.
Learning cities and the social
structures necessary to link individuals and social groups to the city,
in order to support cohesion.
Flexible urban and regional
governance, in the context of the new dynamics and dimensions of urban
The role of cities in enabling a
creative environment for innovative forms of production and social
processes in the networked knowledge-based society.
Intercompetitiveness of cities
and their role in the global systems (economic, environmental, social
III Examples of Future Urban
Within the framework of the proposed future urban research priorities,
the following topics should be taken up within the 7th Framework
1. Improving the quality of life by strategic,
integrated, urban and regional planning:
The interdependences of urban
design, public health, the environment, cultural heritage, transport,
social aspects and economic development need to be investigated further.
Methods for integrating the
various levels of planning (including levels of urban agglomeration:
the city-region, the city, urban districts and neighbourhoods) require
closer analysis, in terms of both planning and implementation.
Strategic plans and instruments of governance should be able to take
these links and interdependencies into account.
Research is also required in
terms of flexible tools to support the elaboration, adoption,
implementation and regular revision of the concepts underpinning
strategic integrated urban and regional development, plus associated
environmental management plans.
Methodological and technical
advice must be suitable in working to solve the specific problems faced
by regions and cities. Research and demonstration activities will be
necessary, including focus upon end-users and their requirements.
In seeking solutions to complex
urban and regional problems, it is necessary to investigate a strategic
planning process, including: the identification of strengths and
weaknesses; problems and potentials; opportunities and threats; and
scenario-building and visioning.
Methods and techniques for
strategic planning need to take into account short-term actions in
addition to long-term planning. This includes futures and assessment
methods as well as methods and techniques for supporting strategic
policy-level decision-making, long-term flexible programming and the
initiation of joint learning processes.
Research is required into the
integration of expert opinions, from different spheres, into the
implementation of strategic integrated plans on urban, regional,
national and European levels and broadening the exchange of experiences
towards improving the implementation of good practice.
Methods of monitoring the impact
and/or successes of strategic, integrated urban and regional plans must
be developed. Monitoring tools are needed, in order to provide early
distress warnings and preventative approaches to enable communities to
avoid negative outcomes.
2. Involvement of stakeholders to achieve sustainable
cities for urban and regional governance
Methods and techniques are needed
to empower stakeholders from various spheres (citizens, private
investors, NGOs, etc.), thus strengthening both their ability to engage
in participative urban and regional planning activities and their
interest in them.. Active stakeholder involvement will be championed as
a major factor in a good urban and regional governance. In the long
run, joint learning processes will be initiated and maintained.
It is also necessary to develop
methods and techniques aimed at increasing the accessibility of
information and expertise and to delegate decision-making powers and
responsibilities to stakeholders. These are essential requirements for
a strategic collaborative approach in urban and regional development.
Greater stakeholder involvement
in planning activities will include research into creating integrated
funding instruments which make use of public and private sources,
ensuring investments are adequately used in progressing towards
strategic integrated urban and regional development.
Research should be carried out on
incorporating marketing and promotional activities into the integrated
urban and regional planning approach, in order to directly address and
engage the target audiences (inhabitants, entrepreneurs and other urban
market members) thus stimulating urban and regional development and
strengthening / enhancing the local and regional image and identity.
Research should be carried out on
improving a municipality's capacity to manage and implement these new
3. Social cohesion and capacity building in a
Promoting capacity development in
terms of social capital and citizenship - responsibility, autonomy,
solidarity, trust cooperation.
Fostering social cohesion,
against the background of growing socio-spatial segregation, should be
progressed as a central issue. Consideration should also be given to
providing adequate access to employment, education, housing and
infrastructures for disadvantaged groups of the population.
Ways of exploiting Information
and Communication Technologies (ICTs) to foster education, lifelong
learning and human resource development should be investigated, in
order progress towards the knowledge-based society. Use of ICTs can
work to prevent further exclusion, which can force urban areas to
become disconnected from social and economic development.
In response to the increasing
number of migrations in European cities, research should respond to the
scientific demands for strategies promoting diversity and integration
amongst different ethnic groups, and the development of more
multicultural spaces. Strategies based at neighbourhood or urban
district level could make a valuable contribution toward strengthening
integration whilst also benefiting ethnic and cultural diversity.
4. Urban redevelopment as a contributor towards improved
living standards and sustainable resource management
Apart from fostering good urban
governance and social cohesion, improving living standards through
urban redevelopment requires particular focus on urban structure,
environmental quality, the protection of cultural heritage, economic
development, and on the image of the urban areas or regions, both
internally and externally. Methods of integrating these issues into
strategic redevelopment/rehabilitation merit further investigation.
Successful regional and urban
redevelopment very much depends upon the creation of a positive image
of the target area. Therefore, the reasons behind a poor image, and its
consequences (e.g. crime, high proportions of minority groups, poor
physical environment must be investigated, in addition to research into
strategies to improve the images of deprived urban areas.
The redevelopment of brownfields,
unused, underused and derelict land, which aims to emulate models of
compact cities with high density and mixed use settlements, is a major
element in sustainable resource management. Therefore, strategies will
have to be elaborated to incorporate the effective prevention of
developments on the greenfields, by strengthening urban redevelopment.
Furthermore, research is required on how to adapt the model of compact
cities with higher densities to maintain relevance for declining and
shrinking urban and regional areas.
Tools and instruments for
creating and supporting strategies which will protect open spaces,
cultural landscapes and natural areas against urban sprawl should be
further developed and disseminated.
" The development of appropriate methodologies and tools is required
for cities to acquire financial and political support towards promoting
safe and healthy environments, and safeguarding urban open spaces in
order to make cities more people-friendly.
" Research is needed on energy efficient settlements and on strategies
to reduce urban waste, promote renewable energy sources and provide
incentives and awards for overall resource efficiency, including within
existing building stock.
5. Sustainable local and regional economy in the era of
Further research is required into
achieving the potential offered by ICTs and the knowledge society,
including the integration of ICT development and implementation within
overall economic regeneration planning.
Structural problems in existing
European funding regimes that do not support the adoption of
sustainability evaluation for either the planning or programming of
Methods of initiating a rise in
weak local economies through promoting investments, business-start-ups
and a move towards knowledge-based economy have to be researched. On
the urban district level, special consideration should be given to the
role of small- and medium-sized enterprises.
Research should be undertaken on
how to strengthen the commitment of the private sector to urban and
regional development; for example, through a stronger focus on
public-private and public-public partnerships. Small- and medium-sized
companies are often strongly rooted within their urban districts. This
should be actively exploited through the development of strategies to
support these enterprises, thus stimulating urban development.
amounts of funding are requested for urban recovery in rehabilitation.
Municipalities and firms suffer insufficient capacity to gather
financial resources. It is necessary to promote and diffuse knowledge
of efficient methods and techniques amongst them, towards access to
super-national, national, regional and local public funding in addition
to access to the financial markets.
The Edinburgh LUDA: Promoting and Regenerating
The PARC Regeneration Project
The Urban Design Framework:
Rising to the Challenge - but not too high!
A key aspect of the successful
regeneration of the Edinburgh LUDA area, Craigmillar, is the
redevelopment of the majority of the housing in the area to provide a
standard and quality appropriate for the 21st century.
It is now firmly recognised that
"housing only" regeneration, or purely physical regeneration, will not
be able to tackle, in a holistic way, the challenges and needs of
community regeneration. However it is acknowledged in Craigmillar that
the backbone/basis for successful regeneration in the area will
incorporate successful housing re-development.
The Craigmillar area is characterised as
a mono-tenure housing "scheme" developed both inter-war and post-war,
with the usual critique that a full range of facilities and community
infrastructure was not provided along with the housing. Also the
housing which was developed, whilst seen a distinct improvement on some
of the inner city tenements it replaced at the time, now needs to be
replaced. To date some successful housing redevelopment has taken
place, which it is hoped will be enhanced by a more comprehensive
regeneration of the area.
The over-riding concept of the
regeneration project within Craigmillar is to "connect" the area and
its challenges with the opportunities, which now exist within the wider
Edinburgh City Region.
- How can the prosperity,
investment, and vitality present elsewhere in Edinburgh, and often
close by in nearby areas, be maximised for the Craigmillar regeneration
- How can the benefits of the wider
Edinburgh economy be brought to the Craigmillar area and in particular
to the residents of Craigmillar?
Early on there has been a recognition that regeneration
is a complex and challenging task, one which cannot be achieved without
significant and substantial support from the area's local and national
governments and agencies. Yet also there is now appreciation that
sustainable regeneration also needs support and investment from a
vibrant and connected private sector. How can the public sector pump
prime regeneration in the area so as to create the conditions for a
substantial growth in the accompanying private sector investment?
One ambitious target for the regeneration is the provision of some 3200
new houses, which will be both for social housing and for private
housing sale, to meet the needs of both the existing Craigmillar
community and to attract and accommodate new people to the area.
The PARC Project (the name adopted for the regeneration
project by The Craigmillar Joint Venture Company) presents planners
with a challenging task in delivering on a number of key, but often
conflicting, objectives in providing the new housing.
- Local people are keen to see new
housing with traditional "front and back doors", with private space and
gardens. They also do not want to see blocks of "high flats". However,
the Council wish to see development that is consistent with its
sustainable policies that seeks to achieve good levels of population
that can sustain local amenities and employment opportunities within
the neighbourhood. Such an approach should not diminish the
environmental quality of the place and the provision of a wide variety
of housing types, sizes and tenure.
- The Council wishes to see the
provision of a substantial number of affordable houses in the area for
both sale and rent to meet the needs of a growing population and for
- Under the financial plan, the sale
of new houses in the area is required to provide the financial
resources necessary for the delivery of a new quality community
infra-structure, including a redeveloped town centre and new community
schools and a library.
- All agree that quality of design
and high standards must be" built in" if the regeneration is to
overcome the perceived image problems of the area.
- Whilst the PARC company will own
substantial areas of development land, there is still a requirement to
liase and work in partnership with other key partners and developers
who also own and wish to develop key sites.
- New developments must not only be
attractive and marketable but must address issues of security,
maintenance and community development and safety.
This "City Story" illustrates how PARC,
by using an Urban Design Framework, sought to tackle these challenges
and conflicting issues and priorities, and set out a blueprint for
future development, which will hopefully utilise the resources of both
the public and private sectors in the regeneration of the housing stock.
The Urban Design Framework is intended
to provide both development direction and guidancefor the area. The
Framework has been developed by the Joint Venture Company in
Partnership with the Council and Community. . Hence the strength of the
Framework will be that resultant planning applications within the area,
will have to accord with the principles and guidelines set out in the
framework. This will ensure a co-ordinated and cohesive development
that contributes to the joined up approach to regeneration activity,
and will give confidence to potential investors in Craigmillar that
there is a concerted and government backed approach to the area's
However, the Framework, must be both
firm enough to establish clear guidance for developers, whilst flexible
enough to allow individual developers to propose distinctive and
creative solutions to urban living. Also a successful Framework must
also seek to meet the aspirations of both the existing and future
communities of Craigmillar.
The Framework, seeks to establish a
structure to both neighbourhood housing development, the provision of
open space and recreational facilities, and the creation of a new town
centre and Greenbelt parkland. It will also incorporate proposals for
transportation access to new areas of economic growth nearby and plan
for the creation of a new tramline connecting the area quickly to the
The prominent debate in drawing up the
framework with the existing community focused on the appropriate
densities for housing redevelopment, and the appropriate height for new
flats. Debate also centred on the need for the construction of a range
of housing types for local people and the provision of enough social
houses for rent, to meet the needs of local people wishing to remain in
or return to the area.
- Can a high quality and safe urban
environment be reconciled with high-density housing and if so, how?
- How can new developments satisfy
local people's aspirations within affordable budgets?
Here innovative solutions are looked at
within the Framework in terms of the variation of densities and urban
form, and the resultant open space layouts with both meaningful public
and private open space. Example layouts of housing neighbourhoods
provide design guidance here for the subsequent developments.
Good practice visits for both
development officials and local community representatives have been
organised showing positive examples of how this has been achieved
elsewhere, with a range of housing types and forms being accommodated
in higher density schemes.
However local people rightly point to
the past history of the Craigmillar area, where the past development of
housing was at a medium to high density, but in a highly regular and
uniform format, which resulted, over time, in an unattractive living
environment with problems of security and privacy. Understandably local
people are keen that lessons are learned here, and that old problems
are not repeated in the new developments.
The Urban Design Framework also
introduces the idea of the "homezone", where the pedestrian has
priority over vehicles in the residential locality. Whilst Homezones
are more common on the continent, they are relatively rare in the UK,
and will be usual when introduced on such a large scale, throughout the
regeneration area as proposed.
The Framework also seeks to reintroduce
to the area the concept of an attractive and bustling "High Street"
within a newly developed town centre, rather than creating a separate
pedestrian precinct. Once again local people are keen to ensure that
new road solutions tackle the existing problems of congestion, through
traffic, and in particular road safety.
The draft document, Urban Design
Framework was completed in November 2004, and will be the subject of
substantial public consultation and discussion early in 2005.
It is hoped that a final document can
both rise to the challenge of building a new community in Craigmillar
whilst also listening and incorporating the views and needs of local
people. Once a finalised Framework is agreed and approved by the Local
Authority, it will form the basis of the regeneration activity,
allowing the redevelopment programme to progress whilst maximising the
required inputs from both the public and private sectors.
The draft Urban Design Framework is
available now to the LUDA Network. Details of links to the document are
available through the City of Edinburgh Council representatives.
City Development Department,
The City of Edinburgh Council
1 Cockburn Street
"Weißeritz" - the case area in Dresden
of the area
Due to its radial location within the city and its spatial dimensions,
the "Weißeritz" area has had a formative influence on the urban
region as a whole. The area is located in the south west of Dresden. It
includes part of the city centre, the (former) industrial zone, road
and rail infrastructure, former workers' living quarters from the
19th/20th century and a landscape reserve close to the city limits. The
river "Weißeritz", and its old river bed, are substantial
components of the 1000 ha area.
One of the major problems is the low, or non-existent, land use by the
private sector. One reason for this is the poor image of the area,
which relates to its destruction during WWII and the relinquishment of
further land use after the reunification of Germany in 1990. The low
demand on land use has resulted in a large amount of inaccessible
wasteland, empty housing and land usage which seems not appropriate for
its central location within the city. Another necessary condition for
investment is flood protection, which is only granted after a number of
Other problems affecting the quality of life are the links to the city
centre e.g. a poor infrastructure for cyclists and pedestrians and poor
cross-river relations between neighbourhoods (Löbtau - Plauen).
The redevelopment of the site is problematic due to the lack of
priorities to force investment, and the lack of consent between
land-owners and between the planning departments of the city.
The area's significant role in connecting the city
centre with adjacent residential areas offers development potential. A
sufficient transport infrastructure exists, offering access to major
roads, the rail network and the local public transport system. A huge
amount of wasteland has the potential to be developed into permanent,
public open space for housing and recreation, and the creation of
designated routes for pedestrians and cyclists. It also offers space
for future developments, benefiting the local economy. The river
"Weißeritz" and its banks provide a link between the different
LUDAs and also offer potential for the development of accessible green
Existing remnants of the urban structure, such as parks, squares,
industrial monuments and historical sites, can serve as initials for
investment and further development.
Vision, chances of development and drivers for change
The vision for the area is to develop a site which attracts both
business and residential developments. The key project underpinning
this vision is the creation of a high quality green open space. The
development of the area depends upon communication and cooperation
between land owners, existing and potential investors and the
municipality. In order to attract investors and proposals for suitable
land usage, the development plans must be communicated more explicitly.
Therefore, it is essential to link marketing with urban planning in
addition to undertaking research on attracting desired land-use
In the short term, pilot projects are being carried out in cooperation
with stakeholders, in order to highlight existing potential for
development. These projects have a positive effect on public relations
and on the image of the case study area, as they visualise long term
In the longer term, the establishment of a green connection between the
city centre and adjacent residential areas is to be realised. This key
project includes a number of additional developments, such as: flood
protection, infrastructural development, securing existing urban
structures and initiating new economic structures through the
improvement of the quality and accessibility of open space.
In order to realize the pilot projects and to ensure the long term
developments, including the green connection, are completed, the
moderation of differing interests and intensive, continuous cooperation
with stakeholders is planned; for example, in marketing. These efforts
will concentrate on the priority action areas.
Interdisciplinary work in process
Uniting the visions of various development plans and programmes with
the diversity of stakeholders' interests is extremely challenging,
particularly due to the volume of demands from lobbyists to exceed the
minimum requirements for stakeholder participation. Additional
obstacles include the low proportion of publicly-owned land of public
land and the high number of private land owners. Below are two examples
of planned and live projects addressing the cooperation of
stakeholders: these aim to foster consensus-based developments in terms
of public welfare and investments.
(1) The Moderation of Interests is an
assembly that deals with a former railway area of 11,5 ha which has
been mainly waste land for several decades. The so-called
"Kohlebahnhof" (a former railway to transport coal) is situated closest
to the inner city centre within the Weißeritz-Project (financed
by European Funding of Regional Development) and is, therefore,
strategic for its urban, economic and ecological potential.
Historically, the area was part of the old Weißeritz riverbed:
now, the City of Dresden considers the area as a major component of the
planned Green Corridor. This will be a public corridor for bikers and
pedestrians with the river Weißeritz as the main attraction,
linking the city centre with adjacent residential areas and a nearby
The Moderation of Interests will be
carried out across three meetings in Nov 2004, January and March 2005,
with landowners and departments of the municipality in attendance. The
meetings are aimed at creating a shared vision and clarifying the next
steps toward its realisation.
The following criteria are essential to this cooperative
- involving all affected
stakeholders in the area
- creating a consensus on further
- thorough consideration of
existing land uses; these are the basic criteria of the moderation
Bottle necks which need to be clarified
in the meeting:
- flood hazards -the site is
currently located in the designated flood risk area. Building and
investment will only become possible once appropriate protective
actions have been taken and the flood risk status is dissolved by
- shared landownership - because of
the locations of the estates, some would profit from certain
developments (on the building site along the street) whereas others
would not (in the actual green corridor); therefore, recommendations
towards voluntary reform of current property ownership conditions have
- intermediate steps - the status
as a railway property has to be altered so urban development and
alternative short term usages can take place.
- Towards the final meeting, the
next steps to enhance stakeholder cooperation will become more crucial,
e.g. participation in a public relations campaign which is planned in
the area this summer.
(2) The continuation of progress
oriented working sessions is being prepared in cooperation with the
IOER. There are three major issues which are scheduled to be finalised
between spring and late summer. The first one focuses on the area's
(changing) identity and ways to achieve a positive external image.
Therefore, the focus will be on identifying common interests and areas
of action between the different stakeholders, in order to improve the
area's image. An example might be that, according to the different
areas of interest, smaller working groups could prepare their input to
a common summer project on improving public relations. With respect to
external development, parallels can be drawn to Dresden's marketing and
marketing opportunities of the site, which were examined in a
The second issue addresses the reuse of
wasteland and strategies to allow the successful development of the
green connection. An overview of positive examples will lead onto
discussions in working groups, on the development of fallow properties
of strategic importance. An overview of alternative tools and
strategies from external experts will enrich the process.
The third issue deals with alternative
development scenarios of the Oederaner Straße residential area.
This area has been characterized by changing land ownership, empty
housing, and the controversial development of investment and its
absence. This workshop will be backed up by a semester-long project by
geography students from the Technical University, Dresden. The project
examines the area's image, living conditions and social structure,
drawing comparisons with similar residential areas situated in LUDA.
The aims are, on one hand, to facilitate the working process of both
European projects (EFRE,LUDA) and, on the other hand, to initiate
structured cooperation with and amongst stakeholders and to gain
perspectives that go beyond the duration of the development projects.
Progress - short term development through Pilot Projects
There are a number of intermediate projects which have been, and
continue to be carried out in the short term, in order to illustrate
and facilitate longer term developments. Some of them are the LUDA
tours which have been developed in cooperation with local stakeholders,
urban development projects and the IOER. These tours introduce visitors
to historical information, the present function and future development
potential of the case study area. For example, the LUDA-North tour
deals with different kinds of green open spaces and their links between
the inner city centre and adjacent quarters. This will remain of
interest due to the reopening of links between spaces that seemed
disconnected from each other because of barriers such as the railway
system. Also, the Moderation of Interests contributed to this reopening
process by presenting temporary land uses as an initiatory stage in the
development of the "Kohlebahnhof". The LUDA-Centre tour focuses on a
junction of major roads, the river Weißeritz, residential areas
and a shopping street. The predominant theme of this walk is the
continuous presence of waste land and empty housing, in combination
with the flood hazards of the Weißeritz river. Participants are
keen to learn about future development possibilities regarding the
river banks and adjacent properties. Therefore, this topic is
complemented by input from subject experts.
Last year's land art project, Light
& Games, was an initial step toward drawing the public's attention
to the Weißeritz and its immediate surroundings. The exhibition
was part of a public relations campaign, involving panel discussions of
the relationship between "lighting art" and urban development, and the
public launch of the framework plan Dresden Weißeritz. This
campaign was initiated and organised by Lumopol, a group of artists,
architects and planners, and sponsored by local stakeholders, the
Weißeritz project (EFRE) and LUDA. This year, another public
relations project is planned, revealing more of the area's identity by
opening land which is normally closed to the public. Following these
demonstrations of the broad variety of existing functions, the main
focus will be upon the future of the green corridor and the initial
steps of the "Kohlebahnhof" development. The moderation and the working
sessions will guarantee key local stakeholders continuous involvement
and active participation.
A key step in the development of the
green corridor is the revival of fallow properties. Therefore,
categories of waste land have been determined in order to simplify the
strategic approach according to their ownership, facilities etc. As a
next step, key properties will be defined, developed over the next few
months with EU-funding (EFRE). The revival of the initial stages of the
green corridor is a task which has taken priority, in close cooperation
with different departments, land owners and external experts.
Hamburger Straße 19
tel. +49 351 488 3445
|hints & upcoming events
20-21 Mai 2005
Workshop in Bratislava
15-17 September 2005
Workshop and Public Conference in Paris
09-19 December 2005
Workshop and Public Conference in Dresden
LUDA Project Team
Project Director: Professor Bernhard Mueller
Leibniz Institute of
Ecological and Regional Development IOER
01217 Dresden (Germany)
fon 0049 351 4679 0
fax 0049 351 4679 212
Dr. Carlos Smaniotto Costa
Patrycja Bielawska - Roepke
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